MOVING FROM PEDAGOGY TO ANDRAGOGY
(Adapted and Updated from Hiemstra, R., & Sisco, B. (1990).
Individualizing instruction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.)
There is little doubt that the most dominant form of instruction in Europe
and America is pedagogy, or what some people refer to as didactic, traditional,
or teacher-directed approaches. A competing idea in terms of instructing
adult learners, and one that gathered momentum within the past three decades,
has been dubbed andragogy. The purpose of this resource piece is to provide
the interested reader with some background information regarding both
The pedagogical model of instruction was originally developed in the monastic
schools of Europe in the Middle Ages. Young boys were received into the
monasteries and taught by monks according to a system of instruction that
required these children to be obedient, faithful, and efficient servants
of the church (Knowles, 1984). From this origin developed the tradition of
pedagogy, which later spread to the secular schools of Europe and America
and became and remains the dominant form of instruction.
Pedagogy is derived from the Greek word "paid," meaning child plus "agogos,"
meaning leading. Thus, pedagogy has been defined as the art and science of
teaching children. In the pedagogical model, the teacher has full responsibility
for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned,
when it will be learned, and if the material has been learned. Pedagogy,
or teacher-directed instruction as it is commonly known, places the student
in a submissive role requiring obedience to the teacher's instructions. It
is based on the assumption that learners need to know only what the teacher
teaches them. The result is a teaching and learning situation that actively
promotes dependency on the instructor (Knowles, 1984).
Up until very recently, the pedagogical model has been applied equally to
the teaching of children and adults, and in a sense, is a contradiction in
terms. The reason is that as adults mature, they become increasingly independent
and responsible for their own actions. They are often motivated to learn
by a sincere desire to solve immediate problems in their lives. Additionally,
they have an increasing need to be self-directing. In many ways the pedagogical
model does not account for such developmental changes on the part of adults,
and thus produces tension, resentment, and resistance in individuals (Knowles,
The growth and development of andragogy as an alternative model of instruction
has helped to remedy this situation and improve the teaching of adults. But
this change did not occur overnight. In fact, an important event took place
some thirty years ago that affected the direction of adult education in North
America and, to some extent, elsewhere as well. Andragogy as a system of
ideas, concepts, and approaches to adult learning was introduced to adult
educators in the United States by Malcolm Knowles. His contributions to this
system have been many (1975, 1980, 1984; Knowles & Associates, 1984),
and have influenced the thinking of countless educators of adults. Knowles'
dialogue, debate, and subsequent writings related to andragogy have been
a healthy stimulant to some of the growth of the adult education field during
the past thirty years.
The first use of the term "andragogy" to catch the widespread attention of
adult educators was in 1968, when Knowles, then a professor of adult education
at Boston University, introduced the term (then spelled "androgogy") through
a journal article. In a 1970 book (a second edition was published in 1980)
he defined the term as the art and science of helping adults learn. His thinking
had changed to the point that in the 1980 edition he suggested the following:
". . . andragogy is simply another model of assumptions about adult learners
to be used alongside the pedagogical model of assumptions, thereby providing
two alternative models for testing out the assumptions as to their 'fit'
with particular situations. Furthermore, the models are probably most useful
when seen not as dichotomous but rather as two ends of a spectrum , with
a realistic assumption (about learners) in a given situation falling in between
the two ends" (Knowles, 1980, p. 43 ).
The andragogical model as conceived by Knowles is predicated on four basic
assumptions about learners, all of which have some relationship to our notions
about a learner's ability, need, and desire to take responsibility for learning:
Their self-concept moves from dependency to independency or self-directedness.
They accumulate a reservoir of experiences that can be used as a basis on
which to build learning.
Their readiness to learn becomes increasingly associated with the developmental
tasks of social roles.
Their time and curricular perspectives change from postponed to immediacy
of application and from subject-centeredness to performance-centeredness
(1980, pp. 44-45).
Andragogy as a concept and set of assumptions about adults was actually not
new to Knowles' popularization of the term. Anderson and Lindeman (1927)
had first used the word in the United States via a published piece, although
Stewart (1986a, 1986b) notes that Lindeman apparently even used the term
as early as 1926. Brookfield (1984) suggests that Anderson and Lindeman drew
upon the work of a German author of the 1920's, Eugene Rosenstock. However,
Davenport and Davenport (1985) assert that the word was first coined in 1833
by Kapp, a German teacher.
Several European countries, such as Hungary, Poland, and Yugoslavia, also
had used the term prior to 1968. Hungarian educators, for example, place
teaching and learning within an overall system called "anthropogogy" (Savicevic,
1981). This system is subdivided into pedagogy (dealing with youth education)
and andragogy (concerned with adult education). There is some variety, too,
in the application of related terms. Some countries use adult pedagogy, one
(the Soviet Union) uses the term auto didactic among others to refer to adult
education activities, and a few countries use andragology to refer to
andragogical science (Knoll, 1981, p. 92).
Outside of North America there actually are two dominant viewpoints: ". .
. one by which the theoretical framework of adult education is found in pedagogy
or its branch, adult pedagogy . . . and the other by which the theoretical
framework of adult education is found in andragogy . . . as a relatively
independent science that includes a whole system of andragogic disciplines"
(Savicevic, 1981, p. 88).
Knowles in describing his particular version of andragogy associated it with
a variety of instructional suggestions and he, too, detailed roles of
facilitation for instructors and talked about ways of helping learners maximize
their learning abilities. His early work with andragogy and subsequent
interpretation of the learning projects research by Tough (1978) and others
led to a 1975 publication on self-directed learning where he provides a variety
of inquiry projects and learning resources on the topic.
Knowles (1975) offered some reasons for his evolving scholarship in the area
of self-directed learning. One immediate reason was the emerging evidence
that people who take initiative in educational activities seem to learn more
and learn things better then what resulted from more passive individuals.
He noted a second reason that self-directed learning appears "more in tune
with our natural process of psychological development" (1975, p. 14). Knowles
observed that an essential aspect of the maturation process is the development
of an ability to take increasing responsibility for life.
A third reason was the observation that the many evolving educational innovations
(nontraditional programs, Open University, weekend colleges, etc.) throughout
the world require that learners assume a heavy responsibility and initiative
in their own learning.
Knowles also suggested a more long-term reason in terms of individual and
collective survival: ". . . it is tragic that we have not learned how to
learn without being taught, and it is probably more important than all of
the immediate reasons put together. Alvin Toffler calls this reason 'future
shock'. The simple truth is that we are entering into a strange new world
in which rapid change will be the only stable characteristic" (Knowles, 1975,
It is this ability to carry out individual learning long after the stimulation
of some activity like a class or workshop is completed that we believe results
from individualizing the instructional process (Hiemstra & Sisco, 1990).
Knowles and the andragogical movement as some refer to it, has not been without
critics. Carlson (1989) summarizes
some of the concerns
many people have had about Knowles at times zealous promotion of andragogy.
Welton (1995) brought together four other colleagues who share in various
ways a more radical philosophy of adult education. They present several arguments
against aspects of andragogy and self-directed learning.
However, it is clear that andragogy and Malcolm Knowles have brought considerable
attention to the adult education field as a separate field during the past
three decades. Applied correctly, the andragogical approach to teaching and
learning in the hands of a skilled and dedicated facilitator can make a positive
impact on the adult learner. Appendix A provides a bibliography that contains
many of the references devoted to andragogy and Malcolm Knowles.
REFERENCES AND RELATED SOURCES
Anderson, M. L., & Lindeman, K. C. (1927). Education through
experience. New York: Workers Education Bureau.
Brookfield, S. (1984). The contribution of Eduard Lindeman to the development
of theory and philosophy in adult education. Adult Education,
Carlson, R. (1989). Malcolm Knowles: Apostle of andragogy. Vitae
Scholasticae, 8(1), 217-234.
Davenport, J., & Davenport, J. A. (1985). A chronology and analysis of
the andragogy debate. Adult Education Quarterly, 35, 152-159.
Hiemstra, R., & Sisco, B. (1990). Individualizing instruction.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Knoll, J. H. (1981). Professionalization in adult education in the Federal
Republic of Germany Democratic Republic. In A. N. Charters (Ed.), Comparing
adult education worldwide (pp. 90-108). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Knowles, M. S. (1968). Androgogy, not pedagogy! Adult Leadership, 16,
Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning. New York: Association
Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education (revised
and updated). Chicago: Association Press (originally published in 1970).
Knowles, M. (1984). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston:
Knowles, M. S. (1986). Using learning contracts. San Francisco:
Knowles, M., & Associates. (1984). Andragogy in Action. Applying modern
principles of adult education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Savicevic, D.M. (1981). Adult education systems in European Socialist countries:
Similarities and differences. ln A. N. Charters (Ed.), Comparing adult
education worldwide (pp. 37-89). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Stewart, D. W. (1986a). Adult learning in America: Eduard lindeman and
his agenda for lifelong learning. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing.
Stewart, D. H. (1986b). Perspectives. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of
Practice and Research, 9(5), 2.
Tough, A. (1978). Major learning efforts: Recent research and future directions.
Adult Education, 28, 250-263.
Welton, M. R. (Ed.). (1995). In defense of the lifeworld: Critical
perspectives on adult learning. Albany, NY: State University of New York
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOURCES RELATED TO ANDRAGOGY
Anderson, M. L.,& Lindeman, E. C. (1927). Education through
experience. New York: Workers Education Bureau.
In this work the authors provide an interpretative translation of literature
describing the folk high school system in Germany. They included a section
entitled, "Andragogy," and describe some teaching methods used by the folk
high school teachers. Anderson's role was primarily that of translator because
much of their source material was in German.
Beder, H., & Carrea, N. (1988). The effects of andragogical teacher training
on adult students' attendance and evaluation of their teachers. Adult
Education Quarterly, 38, 75-87.
The authors examine two hypotheses with an experimental design: (a)
andragogically trained teachers of adults will have higher rates of student
attendance in their classes than teachers not trained in andragogy and (b)
students will evaluate more positively andragogically-trained adult education
teachers than teachers not trained in andragogy. The treatment was found
to have a positive affect on attendance but not on student evaluations.
Boyer, D. L. (1984). Malcolm Knowles and Carl Rogers: A comparison of andragogy
and student-centered education. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice
and Research, 7(4), 17-20.
He suggests that there are commonalities between the two authors' concepts.
For example, both assert that their theories are separate and distinct from
traditional education. In addition, humanism is somewhat foundational to
both concepts. Rogers comes at his ideas from a psychotherapy background
and tends to be more individual and small group oriented. He emphasizes
interpersonal and small group dynamics. Knowles' experience base is in informal
and continuing education programs and tends to be more supportive of group
and larger organizational perspectives. He emphasizes program development.
Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. (1991). Self-direction in adult learning:
Perspectives on theory, research, and practice. New York: Routledge.
In this book the authors describe various aspects of self-direction in adult
learning. Included is considerable mention of andragogy as a foundational
notion. Included, too, is an earlier version of this annotated bibliography.
Brookfield, S. D. (1984). The Contribution of Eduard Lindeman to the Development
of Theory and Philosophy in Adult Education. Adult Education Quarterly,
In tracing some of the contributions of Lindeman, Brookfield points out that
Lindeman, who undertook (with Martha Anderson) an interpretative translation
of the folk high school in Germany, first used the term "Andragogy" in their
1927 monograph, Education Through Experience.
Brookfield, S. D. (1986). Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brookfield presents an entire chapter describing and analyzing andragogy,
in which he delineates various authors who have in some way evaluated or
critiqued andragogy. He also presents several case studies of andragogy in
Brookfield, S. (1987). Learning Democracy: Eduard Lindeman on adult education
and social change. Wolfeboro, New Hampshire: Croom Helm.
Brookfield pulls together a number of Lindeman's writings and adds some
synthesizing chapters. He includes material from the Anderson and Lindeman
(1927) discussion of andragogy and speculates as to how Lindeman's interpretation
of andragogy might have influenced his later writings.
Brown, H. W. (1985). Lateral thinking and andragogy: Improving problem solving
in adulthood. Lifelong learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research,
Lateral thinking, also referred to as synectics, creative thinking, and
conceptualization, is defined as a restructuring of the knowledge a person
already has to bring about new ideas and insights. The author suggests that
lateral thinking can be incorporated into the andragogical process as a mechanism
to promote problem-solving abilities.
Candy, P. C. (1981). Mirrors of the mind: Personal construct theory in
the training of adult educators. Manchester Monographs 16. Manchester:
Department of Adult and Higher Education, University of Manchester.
He places andragogy within what he calls the principle of self-direction.
He compares Knowles to George Kelly, a psychologist, who suggested that
interpretation of the future is what drives a person to seek knowledge.
Carlson, R. A. (1979). The time of andragogy. Adult Education,
He suggests that Elias' attack on andragogy does not give much credence to
the notions of or possibilities for adult self-directed learning. He supports
the notion of facilitating the capable adult learner. He further feels that
both a philosophical and political meaning for andragogy must be developed.
Christian, A. C. (1983). A comparative study of the andragogical-pedagogical
orientation of military and civilian personnel. (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma
State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44,
The researcher developed the scale for this study, designed to measure the
purpose of education, nature of learners, characteristics of learning experience,
management of learning experience, evaluation, and relationships of educator
to learners and among learners. The instrument was adapted from work by Hadley
and Kerwin (annotated in this bibliography). Military subjects were shown
to be less pedagogical than civilians.
Conti, G. J. (1985). Assessing teaching style in adult education: How and
why. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research,
8(8), 7-11, 28.
Although not an article to deal directly with the subject of andragogy, the
author describes his development of PALS, the Principles of Adult Learning
Scale, which identifies different teaching styles, including some that
incorporate some of the andragogical concepts.
Courtenay, B., & Stevenson, R. (1983). Avoiding the threat of gogymania.
Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years, 6(7), 10-11.
They talk about all the efforts to label instruction of various groups of
individuals by some sort of "gogy." They suggest that the distinctions between
various groups are not great enough to warrant a label and certainly not
great enough to talk about there being or the need for a related theory.
They believe that appropriate program development principles are what is
Cranton, P. (1989). Planning instruction for adult learners. Toronto:
Wall & Thompson.
The author provides in Chapter One a description of what she refers to as
some principles of adult learning. Andragogy and the influence of Knowles
is described as a strong influence on adult education practice on pages 6-9.
Cross, K. P. (1981). Adults as learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cross presents her views on the strengths and weaknesses of the andragogical
concept. She believes it is closer to a theory of teaching than to a theory
Daloisio, T., & Firestone, M. (1983). A case study in applying adult
learning theory in developing managers. Training and Development
Journal, 37(2), 73-78.
The authors talk about andragogy as a tool for the American Management
Associations' Competency Program, a non-traditional approach to graduate
management education. The andragogy assumptions and process elements are
used to describe the operation of the program.
Darkenwald, G. D., & Merriam, S. B. (1982). Adult education: Foundations
of practice. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.
The authors describe andragogy in some capacity several times throughout
their book. They place andragogy within a context of self-directed learning
in their attempt to help the novice reader better understand the field, its
terms, and its scholars.
Davenport, J., III. (1987). Is there any way out of the andragogy morass?
Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research, 11(3),
The author suggest that a way to deal with all the debate and discussion
about andragogy is to redefine the term and base its evolving understanding
on empirical research.
Davenport, J., & Davenport, J. A. (1985). A chronology and analysis of
the andragogy debate. Adult Education Quarterly, 35, 152-159.
he authors describe the debate and dialogue that have developed regarding
andragogy during the past several years, including some of the dissertations
on the subject. Considerable space is devoted to the debate in Adult
Education that was held over a several year period and to the various
"gogy" terms that have been developed. They suggest that it is time we move
beyond debate to research.
Davenport, J. III, & Davenport, J. A. (1985). Andragogical- pedagogical
orientations of adult learners: Research results and practice recommendations.
Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research, 9(1),
The authors describe some of the recent research efforts by people studying
andragogical-pedagogical orientation of adults. A variety of practice
implications for adult educators are presented.
Davenport, J. III, & Davenport, J. A. (1985). Knowles or Lindeman: Would
the real father of American andragogy please stand up. Lifelong Learning:
An Omnibus of Practice and Research, 9(3), 4-6.
In this article the authors point out that not only did Lindeman (and Anderson)
first introduce the term "andragogy" in American educational literature,
the work of Lindeman appears to have played an important foundational role
in Knowles' development of andragogical principles and process elements.
They suggest that Lindeman should be seen as the spiritual father and Knowles
as the protective father who popularized the term.
Day, C., & Baskett, H. K. (1982). Discrepancies between intentions and
practice: Reexamining some basic assumptions about adult and continuing
education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 1,
The authors criticize the "andragogy" notion and suggest that andragogy is
not a theory of adult learning, but is an educational ideology rooted in
an inquiry-based learning and teaching paradigm. They believe Knowles' conception
of pedagogy has been incorrectly conceived.
Elias, J. L. (1979). Andragogy revisited. Adult Education, 29,
He takes the view that the promoters and defenders of andragogy have not
proven their case and that there is no sound basis for a distinction between
andragogy and pedagogy. He also feels that the slogan "andragogy not pedagogy"
is a well intentioned, but inadequate, attempt to enhance the professionalization
of adult education. He suggests that andragogy and pedagogy merely represent
two different approaches to the education of children and adults.
Elias, J. L., & Merriam, S. (1980). Philosophical foundations of adult
education. Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.
They place Knowles into a grouping labeled "humanistic adult educators."
They suggest that andragogy is basically a humanistic theoretical framework
applied primarily to adult education.
Fisher, J. C., & Podeschi, R. L. (1989). From Lindeman to Knowles: A
change in vision. International Journal of Lifelong Education,
The article compares Knowles and Lindeman in relationship to the primary
purpose of adult education. They conclude that Knowles and Lindeman are quite
different in terms of the process of learning each espouses. They believe
Knowles' focus is on the effectiveness of individual means and initiative,
whereas Lindeman's stress was on social commitment and the importance of
understanding learning within a social context.
Gelfand, B., & Associates (1975). An andragogical application to the
training of social workers. Journal of Education for Social Work,
The authors present a discussion of how andragogical principles can be used
in social work training. They highlight some research findings that support
various of the andragogical principles.
Godbey, G. C. (1978). Applied Andragogy: A practical manual for the continuing
education of adults. College Park: Pennsylvania State University.
Godbey developed a manual for use in training workshops where participants
are shown how to apply andragogical concepts. Guidance is provided on how
a variety of teaching/training methods can be utilized.
Griffin, C. (1983). Curriculum theory in adult and lifelong education.
London: Croom Helm.
Griffin presents a section in the book describing andragogy. He also presents
some views on the limitations of andragogy and laments that Knowles does
not account for crucial distinctions between the individual purposes and
social consequences of learning.
Grubbs, J. C. (1981). A study of faculty members and students in selected
midwestern schools of theology to determine whether their educational orientation
is andragogical or pedagogical. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 0055a.
The Educational Orientation Questionnaire and Educational Orientation Scales
(see Hadley) were used in this study. Female faculty, faculty in the pastoral
ministries, and faculty in the religious education areas were significantly
more andragogically-oriented. Female and younger students also were more
Hadley, H. (1975). Development of an instrument to determine adult educators'
orientations: Andragogical or pedagogical. (Doctoral dissertation, Boston
University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 35, 7595a.
The "Educational Orientation Questionnaire" incorporates six attitudinal
dimensions of an adult educator's role: Purposes of education, nature of
learners, characteristics of learning experience, management of learning
experience, evaluation, and relationships of educator to learners and among
learners. A second instrument, "Educational Orientation Scales," with six
bipolar measures, was designed to examine predictive validity of the first
instrument. A factor analysis determined eight factors, including pedagogical
orientation, andragogical orientation, and self-directed change among them.
Hartree, A. (1984). Malcolm Knowles's theory of andragogy: A critique.
International Journal of Lifelong Education, 3, 203-210.
Hartree analyzes Knowles' work and provides both a critique and some criticism.
He proposes for adult educators a critical reformulation of andragogy.
Hiemstra, R. (1976). Lifelong learning. Lincoln, Nebraska: Professional
Educators Publications. Reprinted by HiTree Press, Baldwinsville, New York,
Hiemstra presents andragogy as an evolving theory area. He suggests a great
deal more research will be required to bring support for and a fuller
understanding of the emerging area.
Hiemstra, R. (1985). [Review of Andragogy in action; Applying modern
principles of adult learning]. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice
and Research, 9(3), 23-25.
In addition to reviewing the book, Hiemstra introduces the reader to some
of the debate that has surrounded andragogy in North America adult education
Hiemstra, R. (1987, May). Comparing andragogy in two cultures: Tanzania
and the United States. Paper presented at Comparative Adult Education:
An International Conference, Oxford, England.
Hiemstra describes a Training and Rural Development project in Tanzania sponsored
by the U.S. Agency for International Development for which he served as an
external evaluator. The project had been designed, in part, around andragogical
concepts. He compares the project activities with a United States example
and suggests several similarities.
Holmes, M. R. (1980). Interpersonal behaviors and their relationship to the
andragogical and pedagogical orientation of adult educators. Adult
Education, 31, 18-29.
A research piece in which the author demonstrates some positive relationships
between andragogical orientations and perceived effective interpersonal
Hopkins, M. A. (1983). An analysis of nurse educators' educational orientation:
Andragogical or pedagogical. (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University). Dissertation Abstracts International,
In this study the Hadley Educational Orientation Questionnaire was utilized
to measure the orientation of nurse educators. The subjects were found
pedagogically oriented toward education.
Houle, C. O. (1972). The design of education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Houle describes in a couple of locations in the book that he can't accept
the notion there are real differences between youth and children warranting
a science of andragogy. He also describes the European and other roots of
Ingalls, J. D. (1973). A trainer's guide to andragogy. (Rev. Ed.).
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
The author developed a workbook for use in workshops or courses designed
to help staff members in social service agencies understand and apply
andragogical principles. A variety of exercises, techniques, and application
suggestions are included.
Jahns, I. W. (1973). [Review of Modern practice of adult education].
Adult Education, 24, 72-74.
A fairly straight-forward review, although a little more critical of the
technical aspects of the book than was Thornton (annotated in this bibliography).
Jarvis, P. (1984). Andragogy -- a sign of the times. Studies in the Education
of Adults, 16(October), 32-38.
Jarvis provides some sociological explanation of why andragogy became popular.
He contends andragogy emerged at a time when the structures of society were
conducive to the acceptance of new ideas. He believes it is an expression
of the romantic curriculum.
Jones, G. E. (1982). An analysis of the andragogical-pedagogical orientation
of selected faculty at Oklahoma State University. (Doctoral dissertation,
Oklahoma State University). Dissertation Abstracts International,
The Educational Orientation Questionnaire was utilized with selected faculty
teaching at least 25% of the time. There was a significant difference among
departments, by sex, by the time spent off-campus working on extension or
service projects, and by the number of years of teaching experience in higher
Katz, E. A. (1976). The belief in andragogy and the development of
self-actualization. (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 36, 7129a.
This study was designed to determine whether extrinsic learning (belief in
andragogy) or intrinsic learning (development of self-actualization) do occur
in the same learning experience. The purpose was to investigate whether a
particular andragogical process of teaching was effective in the growth of
participants' beliefs in andragogy and in their development of
self-actualization. The Educational Orientation Questionnaire was utilized.
Belief in andragogy increased throughout the learning experiences but the
development of self-actualization did not increase.
Kerwin, M. A. (1979). The relationship of selected factors to the educational
orientation of andragogically- and pedagogically-oriented educators teaching
in four of North Carolina's two-year colleges. (Doctoral dissertation, North
Carolina Sate University). Dissertation Abstracts International,
The study's purpose was to determine if students perceived differences between
the teaching behavior of andragogically- and pedagogically-oriented educators.
The Educational Orientation Questionnaire was adapted and used to determine
the two groups of educators and to determine student types. Students of
andragogically-oriented educators perceived that their instructors provided
more student involvement and counseling and less control over their class
than students of pedagogically-oriented educators did of theirs.
Andragogically-oriented educators tended to be women and in general educational
programs (rather than in vocation programs).
Kerwin, M. A. (1981). Andragogy in the community college. Community College
Review, 9(3), 12-14.
He describes how andragogical techniques were used in a community college
communications course. He designed a questionnaire that measures a student's
perceptions of an instructor's behavior. The instrument was used pre and
post the educational experience to help students think about their own role
Knowles, M. S. (1968). Androgogy, not pedagogy! Adult Leadership,
16, 350-352, 386.
In accepting the Delbert Clark Award in 1967, Knowles laid out his androgogical
(as he spelled it then) concepts. He refers to it as a technology, introduces
self-concept of the adult, experience of the adult, time perspective, and
problem centered education as differentiating factors, and suggests some
of the technological (teaching) implications, such as climate, needs diagnosis,
planning process, mutual self-directed inquiry, and evaluation.
Knowles, M. S. (1968). How andragogy works in leadership training in the
girl scouts. Adult Leadership, 17, 161-162, 190-194.
Knowles describes how he tested the andragogical concepts with a leader training
program for the Girl Scouts program. This case study report outlines the
steps used and an analysis of the final results.
Knowles, M. S. (1970). Modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus
pedagogy. Chicago: Follett Publishing Company, Association Press.
In this first version of the book, Knowles lays out the premise of andragogy
as an art and science of teaching adults as opposed to what is used to teach
children. The book initiated lots of debate, dialogue, and change in terms
of instructional approaches.
Knowles, M. S. (1973). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston:
Gulf Publishing Company.
In a presentation of various learning theories and teaching approaches, Knowles
slots in the andragogical model.
Knowles, M. (1975). Self-directed learning. New York: Association
Although andragogy is mentioned only a very few times in this little book,
Knowles actually is utilizing his andragogical principles and process elements
as guides in developing the various inquiry projects and learning resource
Knowles, M. (1979). Andragogy revisited part II. Adult Education,
Knowles suggests that he made a mistake in subtitling Modern Practice
of Adult Education as "Andragogy versus Pedagogy." He suggests that the
title should have been "From Pedagogy to Andragogy" and that his assumptions
should have been presented on a continuum. However, he feels that some service
came out of the dialogue and debate that was established. A caveat is presented:
That an ideological pedagogue would want to keep a learner dependent throughout
the learning situation whereas a true andragogue would want to do everything
possible to provide the learner with whatever foundational content needed
and then encourage a self-directed process of further inquiry.
Knowles, M. S. (1980). Modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy
to andragogy. Revised and updated. Chicago: Follett Publishing Company,
In this revised edition, Knowles recognizes the considerable debate that
took place since the 1970 version was published and approaches andragogy
as an alternative teaching and learning approach. One that relyies on the
fact that adults are capable of self-directed learning, as are many youth,
but that a person utilizing andragogy as an approach will attempt to move
the learner to independent learning as quickly as possible.
Knowles, M. (1984). The adult learner: A neglected species. (3rd ed.),
Houston: Gulf Publishing.
In this book Knowles discusses andragogy within two different chapters, in
terms of reviewing his organizing concepts, teaching, and publication, and
its use in HRD settings.
Knowles, M. S., & Associates (1984). Andragogy in action: Applying
modern principles of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Two chapters by Knowles (introduction and conclusion) and 36 selections written
by 52 authors, five organizational representatives, and some "associates"
within seven other chapters grouped according to institutional settings make
up this book. The various sections are case study reports of how andragogy
or some variations of it has been used.
Knowles, M. S. (1989). The making of an adult educator: An autobiographical
journey. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
In this autobiography, Knowles traces his career and the development of his
ideas. Of particular interest to readers seeking information on andragogy
is a chapter on how Knowles' ideas have evolved over the years. Here, he
presents his current conceptualization of six assumptions comprising the
andragogical model and includes a discssion on some of the writers who have
influenced his thinking in recent years.
Knudson, R. S. (1979). Humanagogy anyone? Adult Education, 29,
He promotes humanagogy as a theory of learning that takes into account the
differences between people of various ages as well as their similarities.
It is a human theory of learning as opposed to a theory of child, adult,
or elderly learning. The accumulation of experience, for example, is a lifelong
process that needs to be considered in educational planning.
Knudson, R. S. (1980). An alternative approach to the andragogy/pedagogy
issue. Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years, 3(8), 8-10.
Knudson suggests that rather than argue the strengths and weaknesses of andragogy
or pedagogy based on assumptions about whether or not adults and children
are different, we use a law of identity (defining what is meant by being
a child independent of what is meant by being an adult) and a theory of emergence
(we emerge into adulthood based on experiences we had as a child). He suggests,
therefore, that "humanagogy" replace both pedagogy and andragogy. He likens
this to a "holistic" approach to adult education.
Komisin, L., & Gogniat, D. (1987). Andragogy, adult expectations, and
international programs. Continuing Higher Education, 35(1),
The authors describe how andragogical concepts were used to develop international
Kulich, J. (1975). [Review of Erwachsenenbildung: Einfuhrung in die
andragogik (Hanbuch der Erwachsenenbildung, Band 1). (Adult Education:
Introduction to Andragogy. Handbook of Adult Education, Volume 1)]. Adult
Education, 25, 137-138.
This "international" piece is referenced here just to note that there is
literature available from throughout the world related to the word or notion
Lebel, J. (1978). Beyond andragogy to gerogogy. Lifelong Learning: The
Adult Years, 1(9), 16-18, 24-25.
He suggests the existence of sufficient data supporting the need for gerogogy
and advocated that it should be studied as a theory. He suggests, further,
that the concepts imbued within andragogy may be appropriate only up to certain
stages of development chronologically.
Lewis, L. H. (1987). [Review of Modern practice of adult education: Andragogy
versus pedagogy]. Adult Education Quarterly, 37, 120-122.
A retrospective review of the book presented in a special book review feature
of historical landmarks for the field of adult education.
Lindeman, E. C. (1926). Andragogik: The method of teaching adults. Worker's
Education, 4, 38.
This is the first known use of the term andragogy in North American literature.
Lindeman, in a one-paragraph article, described how Professor Eugen Rosenstock
of the Frankfurt Academy of Labor coined a new word: Andragogik. He mentioned
that andragogy is the true method by which adults keep themselves intelligent
about the modern world.
London, J. (1973). Adult education for the 1970's: Promise or illusion?
Adult Education, 24, 60-70.
In this essay review of Modern Practice of Adult Education, London
talks about some of the roles adult educators might play in the 70's. However,
he suggests that Knowles' book is largely a technical book which conveys
a kind of technicism in referring to adult educators. He describes a problem
with the 1970 version in that there is not an effective way of translating
the author's discussion into any kind of effective analysis of how adult
educators can utilize the presentation of needs into programming which will
help adults confront various critical problems facing society. He feels we
need more than just methods and techniques to really help adult educators
confront some of the major issues of our time. He believes we may need more
radical approaches to educating adults, rather than the "sameness" of the
technology implied in Knowles' book.
McCullough, K. O. (1978). Andragogy and community problem solving. Lifelong
Learning: The Adult Years, 2(2), 8-9, 31.
He describes andragogy as a process, a science of teaching adults, and as
a profession. He says that the andragogist believes that knowledge is the
equalizing factor among people and that people can come to "know" enough
through an andragogical process to be a part of community problems solving.
McKenzie, L. (1977). The issue of andragogy. Adult Education,
Utilizing an aristotelian approach (classical), a phenomeno-logical approach,
and two syllogies, McKenzie provides some philosophical support for andragogy.
McKenzie, L. (1979). A response to Elias. Adult Education, 29,
He maintains that adults and children are cardinally different by virtue
of different modes of being-in-the-world, that adults and children exhibit
different modes of existing, that these modes may be identified through
phenomenological analysis, and that the existential differences between adults
and children require a strategic differentiation of educational practice.
He maintains a notion that Knowles' contrast between andragogy and pedagogy
remains a useful but initial effort to explicate an approach to education
that is related specifically to adult life.
McTernan, E. J. (1974). Androgogical education in the health services. Adult
Leadership, 23, 136, 148.
He provides a description of how some principles of adult education were
utilized in instituting a new master's degree program in the health services
area. The author concludes with the notion that their attempt might be a
promising model for the reconciliation of androgogy and pedagogy.
Merriam, S. B. (1987). Adult learning and theory building: A review. Adult
Education Quarterly, 37, 187-198.
She presents an assessment and analysis of the literature related to adult
learning. She describes andragogy as a "theory" based on adult characteristics.
She also presents a summary of some of the criticism that andragogy as a
theory area has received.
Merriam, S. B. (1988). Finding your way through the maze: A guide to the
literature on adult learning. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice
and Research, 11(6), 4-7.
Merriam presents some guidelines and ideas for organizing the adult learning
literature to aid one's selection and reading. Andragogy is presented and
described in the article an one of several theories that attempts to explain
the phenomenon of adult learning.
Meyer, S. (1977). Andragogy and the aging adult learner. Educational
Gerontology, 2(2), 115-122.
This article identifies the basic concepts and structures of pedagogy and
andragogy as teaching-learning strategies for aging adults. Andragogy is
depicted as a relevant participatory adult education technique useful for
Mezirow, J. (1981). A critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult
Education, 32, 3-24.
Mezirow presents what he calls a charter for andragogy, and suggests that
andragogy, "as a professional perspective of adult educators, must be defined
as an organized and sustained effort to assist adults to learn in a way that
enhances their capability to function as self-directed laymen." He presents
12 actions he believes adult educators must carry out.
Newton, E. S. (1970). Andragogy: Understanding the adult as learner. Journal
of Reading, 20, 361-363.
He believes that curriculum should be timed to be in step with developmental
tasks as the individual encounters them to make full use of the teachable
moment. The requirements and demands of the present situation and aspiring
roles in real life must dominate and supersede all other considerations in
Nottingham Andragogy Group. (1983). Toward a developmental theory of
andragogy. (Adults: Psychological and Educational Perspective No. 9).
Nottingham, England: Department of Adult Education, University of Nottingham.
The Nottingham group has somewhat reinterpreted Knowles' andragogical concepts
in terms of their beliefs about adults and adults' abilities to think creatively
and critically in learning settings. The booklet provides descriptions of
methods, several features of a teaching and learning process, and some stages
of course development centered around their notions about critical thinking.
The Nottingham group also report that they believe Alexander Kapp, a German
teacher, first used the word andragogy in 1833 to describe the educational
theory of Plato.
Peterson, C. H., Adkins, D., Tzuk, R., & Scott, M. (1981). Adult problem
solving training: An experimental investigation of andragogical counseling
techniques. Proceedings of the Twenty-second Annual Adult Education Research
Conference (pp. 159-163). DeKalb, IL.
The authors drew upon available literature to delineate a counseling procedure
consistent with andragogical principles and a life span development perspective.
They then examined the effects of implementing such procedures and determined
that people can be helped to enhance their own problem solving abilities
Peterson, D. A. (1983). Facilitating education for older adults. San
Peterson describes andragogy in context with older learners. He suggests
where an understanding of older adults as learners intersects with various
andragogical concepts. He also suggests ways andragogy can be applied with
Podeschi, R. L. (1987). Andragogy: Proofs or premises. Lifelong Learning:
An Omnibus of Practice and Research, 11(3), 14-17, 20.
The author explores the debate that has continued about andragogy during
the past decade and urges adult educators to be concerned about the type
and nature of research that is carried out about the topic.
Podeschi, R. (1987). Lindeman, Knowles and American individualism.
Proceedings of the Twenty-eighth Annual Adult Education Research
Conference (pp. 195-200). Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Conferences
In analyzing these two individuals, Podeschi suggests that Lindeman's andragogy
is related philosophically to republican individualism, whereas Knowles'
andragogy is connected sociologically to utilitarian individualism.
Podeschi, R. L., & Pearson, E. M. (1986). Knowles and Maslow: Differences
about freedom. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research,
The authors talk about Knowles' updated views of freedom and self-directed
learning in his more recent writings about andragogy. They suggest that Knowles
is perhaps overly dependent on the ability of all people to accept individual
freedom in learning.
Pratt, D. D. (1984). Andragogical assumptions: Some counter intuitive logic.
Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual Adult Education Research
Conference (pp. 147-153). Syracuse, NY: Printing Services, Syracuse
Pratt reviews the evolution of the concept of andragogy and examines some
of the distortions and assumptions that have emerged. Two andragogical
assumptions (adults as self-directed learners and shared authority for
decision-making) are examined.
Pratt, D. D. (1988). Andragogy as a relational construct. Adult Education
Quarterly, 38, 160-171.
The author suggests that andragogical practice should acknowledge and accept
of its learners both self-directedness and its obverse, dependency. Several
learner and teacher variables are described and some figures depicting
relationships are provided.
Rachal, J. (1983). The andragogy-pedagogy debate: Another voice in the fray.
Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years, 6(9), 14-15.
Rachal suggests that adult educators may have become too engrossed in the
field's jargon and utilizes "andragogy" as a discussion term. He notes how
concepts like "self-directed learning" have spun off from the philosophical
underpinnings related to andragogy.
Savicevic, D. M. (1981). Adult education systems in European Socialist countries:
Similarities and differences. In A. N. Charters and Associates, Comparing
adult education worldwide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The author introduces the reader to the term "anthropogogy" a term that Hungry
utilizes to cover both andragogy and pedagogy. He also describes how various
other countries in this region use some form of andragogy.
Savicevic, D. M. (1988, May). Conceptions of andragogy in different countries:
Comparative considerations. Paper presented at the 1988 Study Seminar:
Comparative Research in Adult Education, Rome, Italy.
Savicevic traces the roots of andragogy to Greek philosophy up through the
workers' movement in the last two centuries. Its growth in Eastern Europe
in the early part of this century is described. He also relates andragogy
to the social sciences and makes a plea for more comparative study efforts.
Savicevic, D. (1989). Conceptions of andragogy in different countries:
Comparative considerations. In M. Lichtner (Ed.), Comparative research
in adult education: Present lines and perspectives (pp. 65-72). Villa
Falconieri, 00044 Frascati, Roma, Italy: Centro Europeo Dell Educazione.
Savicevic presents the roots and historical development of the concept of
concept is presented and he includes some discussion on the linkages between
andragogy and other sciences.
Sheridan, J. (1986). Andragogy: A new concept for academic librarians.
Research Strategies, 4(4), 156-167.
A case is made for how andragogical concepts and procedures can be utilized
by academic librarians to help meet the many needs of learners and to help
them in using various information resources. Several recommendations and
suggestions are provided.
Sheridan, J. (1989). Rethinking andragogy: The case for collaborative learning
in continuing higher education. Continuing Higher Education,
The author describes collaborative learning and cooperative learning efforts
among students that is reported to be gaining wide acceptance in higher education
today. Collaborative learning is purported to parallel andragogical procedures
in many ways.
Stewart, D. W. (1986). Perspective. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice
and Research, 9(5), 2.
Stewart provides some suggestions as to why Anderson and Lindeman did not
use the term "andragogy" after their mention of it in 1927.
Stewart, D. W. (1987). Adult learning in America: Eduard Lindeman and
his agenda for lifelong education. Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger
Stewart writes a masterful biography of Eduard Lindeman, considered by many
in the United States as the father of scholarly work in adult education.
Chapter 8, entitled "What Adult Education Means: Discovering and Rediscovering
the Concept of Andragogy," describes the interconnectedness between Lindeman's
thinking about adult education and much of what andragogy has come to represent.
He traces the history of Lindeman`s use of the term andragogy in 1926 and
Suanmali, C. (1982). The core concepts of andragogy. (Doctoral dissertation,
Teachers College, Columbia University). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 42, 4471a.
Utilizing the charter for andragogy outlined by Jack Mezirow, Suanmali developed
an "Andragogy in Practice Inventory" and administered it to a group of adult
education professors. He believes that there is a consensus regarding the
major concepts used in the andragogical process.
Tennant, M. (1986). An evaluation of Knowles' theory of adult learning.
International Journal of Lifelong Education, 6, 113-122.
He discusses and evaluates a number of themes which persist explicitly or
implicitly throughout Knowles' writings, including the concept of
self-actualization, the difference between child and adult learners, and
the clinical model influence of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. He argues
for a clearer articulation of several underlying tenets and takes issue with
the notion that adult learning is different from child learning.
Terry, E. F. (1988). Using andragogy to foster moral development of adults
within the institutional church. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice
and Research, 12(2), 4-6.
The author believes that the nature of andragogy is such that it can provide
an appropriate vehicle for facilitating moral development with a church setting.
She relates andragogical process elements closely with the process required
for movement throughout the various stages of moral development. The importance
of facilitation is described.
Thorne, E. H., & Marshall, J. L. (1985). Managerial-skills development:
An experience in program design. Personnel Journal, 55(1),
The authors describe how andragogy can be adapted to an industrial setting.
They describe how to create an environment in which a management skills
development program can operate.
Thornton, J. A. (1973). [Review of Modern practice of adult education:
Andragogy versus pedagogy]. Adult Education, 24, 70-72.
A fairly straight-forward and positive review of the book.
Travis, A. Y. (1985). Andragogy and the disabled adult learner. Lifelong
Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research, 8(8), 16-18, 20.
The author suggests how andragogical principles could be utilized with disabled
adult learners. Several descriptive tables are included.
Warren, C. (1989). Andragogy and N. F. S. Grundtvig: A critical link. Adult
Education Quarterly, 39(4), 211-223.
Warren compares the ideas of N.F.S. Grundtvig with those of various American
adult education thinkers, particularly as those thinkers have addressed the
concept of andragogy. Warren suggests that while Grundtvig has basically
gone unread in North America, his ideas have had a major influence on adult
education in this context, largely due to the legacy of Eduard Lindeman.
He suggests that the basic ideas of Grundtvig essentially parallel Knowles'
assumptions of andragogy.
Yeo, G. (1982). 'Eldergogy' a specialized approach to education for elders.
Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years, 5(5), 4-7.
She recommends a new "gogy," eldergogy, defined as a specialized approach
to education for elders. She believes that eldergogy would help teachers
of older adults to become more effective. She provides a number of
Yonge, A. D. (1985). Andragogy and pedagogy: two ways of accompaniment.
Adult Education Quarterly, 35, 160-167.
In this article, Yonge talks about how discussions of andragogy revolving
around learning and teaching are both necessary and confusing. Some important
differences between a situation of andragogy and pedagogy are presented.
Vacca, R. T., & Walker, J. E. (1980). Andragogy: The missing link in
college reading programs. Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years,
3(6), 16, 24-25.
The authors talk about how andragogical assumptions and approaches can be
used to teach reading to incoming college students.
Van Allen, G. H. (1982). Educational attitudes in a state system of community
colleges. Community College Review, 10(2), 44-47.
Using the Educational Orientation Questionnaire, an instrument developed
to measure attitudes along an andragogical-pedagogical continuum, attitudes
of community college faculty and students were found to fit well together
and to fall near the middle of the scale.
Note: The occasional spelling of andragogy as "androgogy" is as it was found
in the source. For an explanation of the spelling variations, see Knowles
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